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 Logistic Regression Framework Log Odds and Logistic Regression

Log Odds and Logistic Regression

The Log Odds Chart is vital to the Logistic Regression Model. It’s with its aid that the slope and intercept of the Logistic Regression Model are calculated. And the procedure is quite simple. As mentioned previously, it’s quantile-based and, in fact, just a few additional calculations are required to draw the regression line.

So, based on the Quantile Table, one first evaluates the odds ratio for all the buckets (you can check all the values on the Log Odds Table under Odds Ratio). Then the natural logarithm of this ratio is evaluated, resulting in what goes by the name of Log Odds (the log odds values are also shown on the Log Odds Table under Log Odds).

Note, however, that there might be a problem in the evaluation of the log odds if we have buckets with zero positive cases. But this problem can be easily fixed. Although rare for large datasets, it can sometimes happen that some of the buckets end up with zero positive cases in them. And this obviously results in a calculation error in the evaluation of the natural logarithm of the odds ratio. GeneXproTools handles this with a slight modification to the Laplace estimator to get what is called a complete Bayesian formulation with prior probabilities. In essence, this means that if the quantile table we are using has buckets with no positive cases in them, then we do the equivalent of priming all the buckets with a very small amount of positive cases.

The formula GeneXproTools uses in the evaluation of the Positives Rate values pi for all the quantiles is the following:

where μ is the Laplace estimator that in GeneXproTools has the value of 0.01; Qi and Ti are, respectively, the number of Positive Cases and the number of Total Cases in bucket i; and P is the Average Positive Rate of the whole dataset.

So, in the Log Odds Chart, the Log Odds values (adjusted or not with the Laplace strategy) are plotted on the Y-axis against the Model Output in the X-axis. And as for Quantile Regression, here there are also special rules to follow, depending on whether the predominant class is “1” or “0” and whether the model is normal or inverted. To be precise, the Log Odds are plotted against the Model Upper Boundaries if the predominant class is “1” and the model is normal, or the predominant class is “0” and the model is inverted; or against the Lower Boundaries if the predominant class is “1” and the model is inverted, or the predominant class is “0” and the model is normal.

Then a weighted linear regression is performed and the slope and intercept of the regression line are evaluated. And these are the parameters that will be used in the Logistic Regression Equation to evaluate the probabilities.

The regression line can be written as:

where p is the probability of being “1”; x is the Model Output; and a and b are, respectively, the slope and intercept of the regression line. GeneXproTools draws the regression line and shows both the equation and the R-square in the Log Odds Chart.

And now solving the logistic equation above for p, gives:

which is the formula for evaluating the probabilities with the Logistic Regression Model. The probabilities estimated for each are shown in the Logistic Fit Table.

Besides the slope and intercept of the Logistic Regression Model, another useful and popular parameter is the exponent of the slope, usually represented by Exp(slope). It describes the proportionate rate at which the predicted odds ratio changes with each successive unit of x. GeneXproTools also shows this parameter both in the Log Odds Chart and in the companion Log Odds Stats Report.

 Logistic Regression Framework

GeneXproTools

"Gene Expression Programming, combined with GeneXproTools, allow us here at Mercator GeoSystems to explore new and exciting methods for spatially modelling the relationship between a company's outlets and their customers. The GeneXproTools software is simple to use, well-designed and very flexible. In particular the ability to load training data from a database, and the option to create models in the programming language of our choice, really make this product stand out. Product support is excellent and very responsive - heartily recommended!"

Steve Hall
Mercator GeoSystems Ltd
United Kingdom

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