ROC Analysis
Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC Curves are powerful visualization tools that allow a quick assessment of the quality of a model. They are usually plotted in reference to a
Baseline or Random Model, with the
Area Under the ROC Curve (or AUC for short) as a
widely used indicator of the quality of a model.
So, for the Random Model, the area under the ROC curve is equal to 0.5, which means that the further up (or down, for inverted models) a model is from 0.5 the better it is. Indeed, for perfect models on both sides of the random line, what is called
ROC heaven takes place when AUC = 1 (for normal models) or AUC = 0 (for inverted models). Below is shown a typical ROC
curve obtained for a risk assessment model using a training dataset with
18,253 cases. This model, which has a classification accuracy of
74.15% and an Rsquare of 0.2445 (Rsquare values might seem
unusually low, but in risk assessment applications Rsquare values
around 0.22 are considered excellent and indicative of a good
model), has an AUC of
0.7968. Note that the classification accuracy reported refers to the
accuracy of the logistic regression model, not the ROC accuracy
evaluated using the ROC Cutoff Point.
Below is shown a Gallery of ROC
Curves typical of intermediate models generated during a GeneXproTools run.
These ROC curves were specifically created for a risk assessment problem with a training dataset with
18,253 cases and using a small population of just 30 programs.
The Classification Accuracy, the Rsquare, and the Area
Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of each model,
as well as the generation at which they were discovered, are also
shown as illustration.
From top to bottom, they are as follow
(see also the twin Gallery of Logistic Fit Charts in the
Logistic Fit section):
 Generation 0, Accuracy = 65.33%, Rsquare = 0.0001, AUC = 0.5273
 Generation 5, Accuracy = 66.03%, Rsquare = 0.0173, AUC = 0.5834
 Generation 59, Accuracy = 66.92%, Rsquare = 0.0421, AUC = 0.6221
 Generation 75, Accuracy = 68.99%, Rsquare = 0.1076, AUC = 0.7068
 Generation 155, Accuracy = 69.93%, Rsquare = 0.1477, AUC = 0.7597
 Generation 489, Accuracy = 74.15%, Rsquare = 0.2445, AUC = 0.7968

Generation 0, Accuracy = 65.33%, Rsquare = 0.0001, AUC = 0.5273
Generation 5, Accuracy = 66.03%, Rsquare = 0.0173, AUC = 0.5834
Generation 59, Accuracy = 66.92%, Rsquare = 0.0421, AUC = 0.6221
Generation 75, Accuracy = 68.99%, Rsquare = 0.1076, AUC = 0.7068
Generation 155, Accuracy = 69.93%, Rsquare = 0.1477, AUC = 0.7597
Generation 489, Accuracy = 74.15%, Rsquare = 0.2445, AUC = 0.7968
ROC Curves and ROC Tables are also useful to evaluate what is called the
Optimal Cutoff Point, which is given by the maximum of the Youden index. The Youden index
J returns the maximum value of the expression (for inverted
models, it returns the minimum):
J = max[SE_{(t)} + SP_{(t)}  1]
where SE_{(t)} and SP_{(t)} are, respectively, the
sensitivity and specificity over all possible
threshold values t of the model. Thus, the ROC Cutoff Point corresponds to the model output at the Optimal Cutoff Point.
In the ROC Table, GeneXproTools also shows all “SE + SP 1” values and highlights in light green the row with the Optimal Cutoff Point and corresponding
ROC Cutoff Point. These parameters are also shown in the
ROC Statistics Report.
The ROC Cutoff Point can be obviously used to
evaluate a Confusion Matrix (in
the Logistic Regression Window it is called
ROC Confusion Matrix in order to distinguish it from the
Logistic Confusion Matrix) and, in the Cutoff Points Table, you have access to the Predicted Class, the Match, and Type
values used to build the ROC Confusion Matrix (you can see the graphical representation of the
ROC Confusion Matrix in the Confusion Matrix
section).
The visualization of the ROC Confusion Matrix is a valuable tool and can be used to determine the right number of
bins to achieve a good fit with the
Logistic Regression Model. But GeneXproTools allows you to do more with the ROC Confusion Matrix and associated
ROC Cutoff Point. By allowing the
conversion of Logistic Regression runs to the Classification Framework, you can use this model, with its finely adapted
ROC Cutoff Point, straightaway to make binary classifications using the Classification Scoring Engine of GeneXproTools.
Note, however, that you'll have to change the Rounding Threshold to
ROC Threshold in the Settings Panel (when a Logistic Regression run
is converted to Classification, the Rounding Threshold is set to
Logistic Threshold by default) and then recalculate all model
thresholds by selecting Update All Thresholds in the History menu.
The Youden index is also used to evaluate a wide range of useful statistics at the Optimal Cutoff Point (OCP statistics for short). They include:
 TP (True Positives)
 TN (True Negatives)
 FP (False Positives)
 FN (False Negatives)
 TPR (True Positives Rate or Sensitivity)
 TNR (True Negatives Rate or Specificity)
 FPR (False Positives Rate, also known as 1Specificity)
 FNR (False Negatives Rate)
 PPV (Positive Predictive Value)
 NPV (Negative Predictive Value)
 Classification Accuracy (Correct Classifications)
 Classification Error (Wrong Classifications)
How they are calculated is shown in the table below ("TC" represents the number of Total Cases):
TPR (Sensitivity) 
TP / (TP + FN) 
TNR (Specificity) 
TN / (TN + FP) 
FPR (1Specificity) 
FP / (FP + TN) 
FNR 
FN / (FN + TP) 
PPV 
TP / (TP + FP), and TP + FP
≠ 0 
NPV 
TN / (TN + FN), and TN + FN
≠ 0 
Classification Accuracy 
(TP + TN) / TC 
Classification Error 
(FP + FN) / TC 
It is worth pointing out that OCP statistics are quantileindependent and
are therefore a
good indicator of what could be achieved with a model in terms of logistic fit and accuracy.
See Also:
Related Tutorials:
Related Videos:
